Uncritical Thinking Examples Of Metaphors
Part of the sequence: Rationality and Philosophy
In my last post, I showed that the brain does not encode concepts in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. So, any philosophical practice which assumes this — as much of 20th century conceptual analysis seems to do — is misguided.
Next, I want to show that human abstract thought is pervaded by metaphor, and that this has implications for how we think about the nature of philosophical questions and philosophical answers. As Lakoff & Johnson (1999) write:
If we are going to ask philosophical questions, we have to remember that we are human... The fact that abstract thought is mostly metaphorical means that answers to philosophical questions have always been, and always will be, mostly metaphorical. In itself, that is neither good nor bad. It is simply a fact about the capacities of the human mind. But it has major consequences for every aspect of philosophy. Metaphorical thought is the principal tool that makes philosophical insight possible, and that constrains the forms that philosophy can take.
To understand how fundamental metaphor is to our thinking, we must remember that human cognition is embodied:
We have inherited from the Western philosophical tradition a theory of faculty psychology, in which we have a "faculty" of reason that is separate from and independent of what we do with our bodies. In particular, reason is seen as independent of perception and bodily movement...
The evidence from cognitive science shows that classical faculty psychology is wrong. There is no such fully autonomous faculty of reason separate from and independent of bodily capacities such as perception and movement. The evidence supports, instead, an evolutionary view, in which reason uses and grows out of such bodily capacities.
Consider, for example, the fact that as neural beings we must categorize things:
We are neural beings. Our brains each have 100 billion neurons and 100 trillion synaptic connections. It is common in the brain for information to be passed from one dense ensemble of neurons to another via a relatively sparse set of connections. Whenever this happens, the pattern of activation distributed over the first set of neurons is too great to be represented in a one-to-one manner in the sparse set of connections. Therefore, the sparse set of connections necessarily groups together certain input patterns in mapping them across to the output ensemble. Whenever a neural ensemble provides the same output with different inputs, there is neural categorization.
To take a concrete example, each human eye has 100 million light-sensing cells, but only about 1 million fibers leading to the brain. Each incoming image must therefore be reduced in complexity by a factor of 100. That is, information in each fiber constitutes a "categorization" of the information from about 100 cells.
Moreover, almost all our categorizations are determined by the unconscious associative mind — outside our control and even our awareness — as we interact with the world. As Lakoff & Johnson note, "Even when we think we are deliberately forming new categories, our unconscious categories enter into our choice of possible conscious categories."
And because our categories are shaped not by a transcendent, universal faculty of reason but by the components of our sensorimotor system that process our interaction with the world, our concepts and categories end up being largely sensorimotor concepts and categories.
Here are some examples of metaphorical thought shaped by the sensorimotor system:
Important Is Big
Example: "Tomorrow is a big day."
Mapping: From importance to size.
Experience: As a child, finding that big things (e.g. parents) are important and can exert major forces on you and dominate your visual experience.
Intimacy Is Closeness
Example: "We've been close for years, but we're beginning to drift apart."
Mapping: From intimacy to physical proximity.
Experience: Being physically close to people you are intimate with.
Difficulties Are Burdens
Example: "She's weighed down by her responsibilities."
Mapping: From difficulty to muscular exertion.
Experience: The discomfort or disabling effect of lifting or carrying heavy objects.
More Is Up
Example: "Prices are high."
Mapping: From quantity to vertical orientation.
Experience: Observing the rise and fall of levels of piles and fluids as more is added or subtracted.
Categories Are Containers
Example: "Are tomatoes in the fruit or vegetable category?"
Mapping: From kinds to spatial location.
Experience: Observing that things that go together tend to be in the same bounded region.
Linear Scales Are Paths
Example: "John's intelligence goes way beyond Bill's."
Mapping: From degree to motion in space.
Experience: Observing the amount of progress made by an object.
Organization Is Physical Structure
Example: "How do the pieces of this theory fit together?"
Mapping: From abstract relationships to experience with physical objects.
Experience: Interacting with complex objects and attending to their structure.
States Are Locations
Example: "I'm close to being in a depression and the next thing that goes wrong will send me over the edge.
Mapping: From a subjective state to being in a bounded region of space.
Experience: Experiencing a certain state as correlated with a certain location (e.g. being cool under a tree, feeling secure in a bed).
Purposes Are Destinations
Example: "He'll ultimately be successful, but he isn't there yet."
Mapping: From achieving a purpose to reaching a destination in space.
Experience: Reaching destinations throughout everyday life and thereby achieving purposes (e.g. if you want food, you have to go to the fridge).
Actions Are Motions
Example: "I'm moving right along on the project."
Mapping: From action to moving your body through space.
Experience: The common action of moving yourself through space, especially in the early years of life when that is to some degree the only kind of action you can take.
Understanding Is Grasping
Example: "I've never been able to grasp transfinite numbers."
Mapping: From comprehension to object manipulation.
Experience: Getting information about an object by grasping and manipulating it.
As a neural being interacting with the world, you can't help but build up such "primary" metaphors:
If you are a normal human being, you inevitably acquire an enormous range of primary metaphors just by going about the world constantly moving and perceiving. Whenever a domain of subjective experience or judgment is coactivated regularly with a sensorimotor domain, permanent neural connections are established via synaptic weight changes. Those connections, which you have unconsciously formed by the thousands, provide inferential structure and qualitative experience activated in the sensorimotor system to the subjective domains they are associated with. Our enormous metaphoric conceptual system is thus built up by a process of neural selection. Certain neural connections between the activated source- and target-domain networks are randomly established at first and then have their synaptic weights increased through their recurrent firing. The more times those connections are activated, the more the weights are increased, until permanent connections are forged.
Primary metaphors are combined to build complex metaphors. For example, Actions Are Motions and Purposes Are Destinations are often combined to form a new metaphor:
A Purposeful Life is a Journey
Example: "She seems lost, without direction. She's fallen off track. She needs to find her purpose and get moving again."
Can we think without metaphor, then? Yes. Our concepts of so-called "basic level" objects (that we interact with in everyday experience) are often literal, as are sensorimotor concepts. Our concepts of "tree" (the thing that grows in dirt), "grasp" (holding an object), and "in" (in the spatial sense) are all literal. But when it comes to abstract reasoning or subjective judgment, we tend to think in metaphor. We can't help it.
Implications for philosophical method
What happens when we fail to realize that our thinking is metaphorical? Let's consider a famous example: Zeno's paradox of the arrow.
Zeno described time as a sequence of points along a timeline. Now, consider an arrow in flight. At any point on the timeline, the arrow is at some particular fixed location. At a later point on the timeline, the arrow is at a different location. But since the arrow is located at a single fixed place at every point in time, then where is the motion?
Suppose, Zeno argues, that time really is a sequence of points constituting a time line. Consider the flight of an arrow. At any point in time, the arrow is at some fixed location. At a later point, it is at another fixed location. The flight of the arrow would be like the sequence of still frames that make up a movie. Since the arrow is located at a single fixed place at every time, where, asks Zeno, is the motion?
The puzzle arises when you take the metaphor of time as discrete points along the space of a timeline as being literal:
Zeno's brilliance was to concoct an example that forced a contradiction upon us: [a contradiction between] literal motion and motion metaphorically conceptualized as a sequence of fixed locations at fixed points in time.
Moral concepts as metaphors
For a more detailed illustration of the philosophical implications of metaphorical thought, let's examine the metaphors that ground our moral concepts:
Morality is fundamentally seen as the enhancing of well-being, especially of others. For this reason, ...basic folk theories of what constitutes fundamental well-being form the grounding for systems of moral metaphors around the world. For example, since most people find it better to have enough wealth to live comfortably than to be impoverished, we are not surprised to find that well-being is conceptualized as wealth...
We all conceptualize well-being as wealth. We understand an increase in well-being as a gain and a decrease of well-being as a loss or a cost. We speak of profiting from an experience, of having a rich life, of investing in happiness, and of wasting our lives... If you do something good for me, then I owe you something, I am in your debt. If I do something equally good for you, then I have repaid you and we are even. The books are balanced.
Well-Being Is Wealth is not the only metaphor behind our moral thinking. Here are a few others:
Being Moral Is Being Upright; Being Immoral Is Being Low; Evil Is a Force
Example: "He's an upstanding citizen. She's on the up and up. She's as upright as they come. That was a low thing to do. He's underhanded. I would never stoop to such a thing. She fell from grace. She succumbed to the floods of emotion and the fires of passion. She didn't have enough moral backbone to stand up to evil."
How does the metaphorical nature of our moral concepts constrain moral philosophy? Let us contrast a traditional view of moral concepts with the view of moral concepts emerging from cognitive science:
The traditional view of moral concepts and reasoning says the following: Human reasoning is compartmentalized, depending on what aspects of experience it is directed to. There are scientific judgments, technical judgments, prudential judgments, aesthetic judgments, and ethical judgments. For each type of judgment, there is a corresponding distinct type of literal concept. Therefore, there exists a unique set of concepts that pertain only to ethical issues. These ethical concepts are literal and must be understood only "in themselves" or by virtue of their relations to other purely ethical concepts. Moral rules and principles are made up from purely ethical concepts like these, concepts such as good, right, duty, justice, and freedom. We use our reason to apply these ethical concepts and rules to concrete, actual situations in order to decide how we ought to act in a given case.
… [But] there is no set of pure moral concepts that could be understood "in themselves" or "on their own terms." Instead, we understand morality via mappings of structures from other aspects and domains of our experience: wealth, balance, order, boundaries, light/dark, beauty, strength, and so on. If our moral concepts are metaphorical, then their structure and logic come primarily from the source domains that ground the metaphors. We are thus understanding morality by means of structures drawn from a broad range of dimensions of human experience, including domains that are never considered by the traditional view to be "ethical" domains. In other words, the constraints on our moral reasoning are mostly imported from other conceptual domains and aspects of experience...
An explosion of productivity in moral psychology since Lakoff & Johnson's book was published has confirmed these claims. The convergence of evidence suggests that multiple competing systems contribute to our moral reasoning, and they engage many processes not unique to moral reasoning.
Once again, knowledge of cognitive science constrains philosophy:
This view of moral concepts as metaphoric profoundly calls into question the idea of a "pure" moral reason... [Moreover,] we do not have a monolithic, homogeneous, consistent set of moral concepts. For example, we have different, inconsistent, metaphorical structurings of our notion of well-being, and these are employed in moral reasoning.
Next post: Intuitions Aren't Shared That Way
Previous post: Concepts Don't Work That Way
This is part one of a three part series of articles that discusses visual thinking devices you can use to enhance your visual message.
Metaphors, analogies and other related devices, that I will discuss within this series of articles, are as critical to visual thinking as color is to an artist. Without the use of color, an artist finds it excruciatingly difficult to develop their full capacity for creative self-expression. Moreover, their artwork lacks character and often fails to deliver their intended message.
Color generates passion, excitement, or mayhem — moving people emotionally in whichever way the artist originally envisioned. It creates involvement — immersing people into a world of endless possibilities, that are shaped by the artist’s unique personality and perspectives.
Metaphors Shape Our Understanding of Reality
Metaphors and analogies are used constantly to help us make sense of the world we live in. In fact, they shape our understanding of the world and subsequently our mental model of reality. Moreover, they assist us with making more effective decisions and choices about the events and circumstances of our lives. They also help inspire, move and motivate us forward on a daily basis.
When it comes to visual thinking, these devices provide you with a means and a way to communicate your visual message in a meaningful manner that helps build understanding, awareness and familiarity. They align with people’s mental models of the world and subsequently provide a deep sense of connection with the information you are sharing with them.
Without these devices visual thinking would be much like an artist without color — an artist nevertheless, but an artist with far less creative self-expression.
Linking the New with the Familiar
The main advantage that these devices have for visual thinking is that they allow you to link the new with the familiar. They help you to bridge the gap by piecing together a canvas of new concepts and ideas and presenting them in a way that others understand and connect with. The same of course is true when you’re using visual thinking for your own purposes. Please keep this in mind as we work through this discussion.
Every new visual concept or idea you generate must be presented in such a way that it immediately sparks familiarity and understanding. It must spark that “Aha” moment, where everything suddenly makes sense with the world and all of humanity.
All this is very important, because familiarity, a sense of connection, and comfort are the driving forces that help people overcome fear, resistance and anxiety. They put the mind at rest and therefore breed tolerance, acceptance and ultimately allow people to integrate whatever it is you’re presenting into the framework of their thinking — into the mental models of their reality.
What is a Metaphor?
A metaphor is basically an implied comparison that brings together two dissimilar objects or things. The two things that are being compared make up the metaphor, which asserts that two things that are not alike are in fact the same. A working example is how I have constantly made the link between visual thinking and magic. I treat them as being one and the same, even though they are different.
Metaphors are most effectively used when you associate an obscure or difficult subject with something else that makes the first easier to understand. However, you must keep in mind, that even though they are great to use, the metaphor you’re using must be universal, or otherwise it simply won’t fit-in with people’s mental models of reality.
Here are some examples of metaphors:
- Ideas are mushrooms that expand and multiply quickly.
- Ideas have wings.
- Asking questions is priming the pump of better understanding.
- Thoughts are the seeds of creation.
- A positive attitude is a lighthouse for the hopeful.
- You have the heart of a lion.
- You’re a visual thinking butterfly, still in your cocoon. 🙂
What is an Analogy?
Just like a metaphor, an analogy asserts that there is a connection between two dissimilar things, however, an analogy implies that there is actually a difference between these two things, while a metaphor treats them as being the same.
The main purpose of an analogy is to bring out the meaning of a concept or idea in such a way that it can be understood with ease. For this very reason analogies play a significant role in problem solving, decision making, perception, memory, creativity, emotion and communication. They are integrated into the fabric of our lives and are also critical to the process of visual thinking.
Analogies are best used when providing people with a visual understanding of the logic you are trying to get across to them, that naturally synchronizes with their mental models of the world. To do this, you must present an new idea by using concepts that people are already familiar with. This relationship helps people digest concepts and ideas far more effectively and easily.
Here are some examples of analogies:
- Glove is to hand as paint is to wall.
- What dog is to kennel, a rabbit is to a burrow.
- A fish is to water as a bird is to air.
- What child is to a mother, a song is to a singer.
- What strings are to a guitar, love is to life.
- What a General is to an army, a CEO is to a company.
- Just as a sword is the weapon of a warrior, a pen is the weapon of a writer.
A Practical Example of a Visual Thinking Metaphor
Within the next post, I will provide you with an example of a visual thinking metaphor you can use to help gain clarity about the steps you need to take to achieve a goal or objective. It’s going to be one of many visual thinking metaphors that we will discuss over time. Individually, they are effective tools you can use to gain more clarity about your life, however, used together, they become powerful tools for change and transformation.